What is 3d printer?
The conception of “printer” is known very long ago for humanity as infinite source of printing text and colorful pictures. Contemporary printers print glossy and lusterless photography with easiness. That they are irreplaceable in offices and educational institutions you may speak for a long time and tediously. But with three-dimensional print such plants have very little in common; you can’t do three-dimensional figures with their help.
Then what kind of thing is a three-dimensional printer properly speaking? The work of 3D printer is to take out three-dimensional figures and objects, thus it may be affirmed it creates physical bodies according to forms and parameters.
What as regards a technology of reproduction of three-dimensional print then there are they enough very much, but all of they are founded on a principle of gradual superposition different layers of material against each other. In other words with help this equipment you can bring up most different objects and details in volume planes.
Pic. 1. The figure was made with help 3D printer
Where and for what is three dimensional printers used
If about 20 years ago main innovation in world and developers’ achievement was mobile communication then today there is a hour of triumph for three-dimensional print equipments. As a practice displays they are used in most different spheres. First of all their use began in production of prototype. However to print on 3D printer may not only ideal prototypes but and many other important things. Today it’s known use of such apparatuses in architecture and sculpture, in design of landscape, in geodesy and cartography, in boot and shoe industry too.
It should be noted 3D printer business is closely connected with jeweler’s art. The technology of 3D print was taken for equipment by representatives this profession long ago. Also they are used in medical simulation for reconstitution models of internal organs and in making prosthetic appliances. Contemporary sculptors and painters very often use apparatuses making prototypes for reproduction in quantity different figures.
Because of high cost of three-dimensional printers not every owner of a business may permit himself to buy such equipment, therefore today many firms and organizations offer clients to rent this printer or make separate objects to order. On the territory of the Russian Federation such service will be cost several dollars for every cubic centimeter or a little more. To considerable extent everything will depend on using methods of three-dimensional print. In the near it’s planned organization and realization such orders remotely that client could give exact instructions about this or that task to executor and then receive ready article by post.
Another one surprising fact about 3D printers may be considered their capacity to duplicate their own details. The elaboration such specialized device was began in 2006 year on base of project by name RapRap, within its framework the scientists were able to reproduce almost half of constructive elements of device for three-dimensional print. In future with help such equipment the production of 3D printers will be cost much more cheaply and less labor costs. During two years developers did all tests and removed defects of their creation and today three-dimensional printers RepRap were started up in production. To make such 3D printer with one’s own hand will be difficult enough, but then you most likely will encounter shortcomings of device .
Pic. 2. The three-dimensional printer printing its own details
Today you can buy 3D printer if only you have huge financial resources, but in time the cost of such apparatuses will be less considerably, because contemporary elaboration of scientists are aimed mainly on reduction of the price and modernization of such three-dimensional equipment.
There are perspectives and potentialities of 3D printers in food industry
First three-dimensional device, 3D print of which you can use to raise food products, was made by scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of technology. In 2010 year they introduced to world striking device by name Comucopia (“horn of plenty”).
The work of 3D printer of such trend is differed from standard device not much, but as initial material is used this or that food product, you can even mix several different products. When food products get in working chamber there is their strong cooling for comfort of making subsequent works. Then the received substance is intermixed carefully and form it there is made beforehand given product or dish.
The creation of such food printer if closely connected with names of Marcello Coelho and Amit Zoran, because namely these people are considered founders of this idea and people, who did its direct realization. This innovation represents not only interesting apparatus, but and great step forward in sphere of cookery’s development. The survey of 3D printers of such brand of activity displayed that they can acquaint humanity with absolutely new refined culinary inventions and use unknown earlier technology of preparation food, what be especial popular in fashionable restaurants. And what is more, the user can place beforehand necessary importance of food value or of not less important gustatory qualities of ready product, what you can print on 3D printer. The service of such device is simple enough, but nevertheless it’ll demand from user detailed acquaintance with guidance. .
Pic. 3. The food three-dimensional printer
There are perspectives and potentialities of 3D printers in medicine
The long years of medical investigations leaded to the fact that Institute of regenerative medicine PEC Forest began using three-dimensional print for reproduction of human tissues. It appears that inkjet 3D printers can raise real human organs if they will be refueled by biomaterial (alive cells) instead of plastic ABC. With this elaboration impetuous development of cloning of living organisms became much more real then earlier. This bioprinter had to go through a lot of all kinds of tests and analyses, because to transplant to person “printed” kidney or liver without careful examination would be unwisely and too risky.
The result of laborious and diligent work of scientists became three-dimensional printer by name “TED 2011”, it was presented to public Autumn 2011 year. You will be amazed by the simplicity of the technology of its work, because it too strongly remind of most simple inkjet printer. For everyone familiar ink was replaced with stem cells from human or animal origin. Some people may feel that collecting such 3D printer by their own hands not demand special work, but quite the opposite. Every most small detail plays important role, because any not right motion or change of temperature can threaten to this or that operation.
The survey of 3D printers of medical purpose shows their possibilities are practically infinite. With help such equipment you can in shortest possible time produce practically any tissue of human organism, including skin integuments and mucous membranes. What about cartilages and vertebral disks then even such difficult compositions and joints can be raised with help appropriate biomaterial. The testing organ, recreated with help medical 3D printer, was also successful. 3D printer business found its full place and here.
It is process of raising of human internal organs.
The using this device on the practice mean that sick human organ is subjected to all necessary analysis and the scans from different angles to get the full picture. Findings are placed in brain center of three-dimensional print device, and in work chamber it is loaded appropriate model of biomaterial. Just a few hours this device produces a healthy body with all its components systems and vessels.
Results of following medical tests startle even most experienced doctors. For example, scientists were able to reconstruct the reproductive organs rabbits. The experiment has not been completed on this, because raised organs were implanted to examining animals. It turned out that artificial samples possess all necessary functions therefore rabbits were again able to mate. Another experiment that struck humanity was created artificially rat’s heart, which not only brought back to life the poor animal, it also gave his full health. Also it is known about human urinary bladder, which was successfully reproduced with help 3D printer.
Physicians plan to use such equipment for healing wounds, burns and other serious injuries on the body of the patient. Knife and gunshot wounds are no longer so terrible, because process of healing such patient will be more quick and effective. For three-dimensional printer will be enough just to scan the wound or damaged organ to give soon the necessary portion of biomaterial and to fill fresh wounds.
Such astonishing 3D printer simply make happy humanity, the exhibition of work models is replenished with new devices, which have more good possibilities, every year. Researchers predict great future compact personal devices; such 3D printer can be bought anyone. We are talking about what to print on a 3D printer can be anything you want. From a medical point of view such apparatus will be indispensable for home healing wounds of this or that complication.
The future is for three-dimensional printing
3D printers were real stars on every year scientific conference CES, the exhibition 2014 compelled to look new on using such equipment. With every year number of represented models of devices 3D print is increased. Some five years ago such printers were nothing special, but today their cost became much more less and their possibilities became more incredible.
Pic. 5. There is portable three-dimensional printer
Lovers of culinary art were pleased confectionery 3D printers, the exhibition 2014 presented to world two models of such remarkable equipment (ChefJet, ChefJetPro). The developers expect active using their inventions in restaurants, coffee shops and other specialized institutions, that could not only simplify preparation many dishes, but and became interesting diversion for visitors. Many people also were interested by three-dimensional scanner and portable 3D printer, the exhibition, dedicated to the three-dimensional printing, was especially very successful.
Just imagine, how your life would with such a universal device. Armed with special material, the user will be able at home to print for himself unique set of utensils or even a couple of cute shoes, every day you will can please your little child by new culinary masterpiece, edible castle or the beautiful shaped sweets.
Pic. 6. There are sweets, printed with help three-dimensional print.
Soon three-dimensional printers may be named magic wand, which will change world around us cardinally. The sphere of space investigations already long ago has its eye on devices of three-dimensional printing, because they have greatly facilitated and accelerated the process of repair the corresponding space equipment. More over, the astronauts have been able without assistance to produce own tools and apparatuses, which are necessary for further researches of space. Who knows, maybe in the next decade, humanity will be able to build new cities on the moon or neighboring planets.